Tokyo – Japan, Asia
The Tokyo Metropolitan government administers the twenty-three special wards ofTokyo (each governed as a city), which cover the area that was the city ofTokyo, as well as 39 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture andthe two outlying island chains. The population of the special wards is over 8million people, with the total population of the prefecture exceeding 13million. The prefecture is part of the world’s most populous metropolitan areawith upwards of 35 million people and the world’s largest metropolitan economywith a GDP of US$1.479 trillion at purchasing power parity in 2008, ahead ofNew York City, which ranks second on the list. The city hosts 47 of the FortuneGlobal 500 companies.
Tokyo has been described as one of the three “command centers” forthe world economy, along with New York City and London. This city is consideredan alpha+ world city, listed by the GaWC’s 2008 inventory and ranked thirdamong global cities by Foreign Policy’s 2010 Global Cities Index. In 2010 Tokyowas named the second most expensive city for expatriate employees, according tothe Mercer and Economist Intelligence Unit cost-of-living surveys, and namedthe fourth Most Liveable City and the World’s Most Livable Megalopolis by themagazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelinstars of any city in the world. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics and iscurrently bidding to host the 2020 Summer Olympics. The former city of Tokyoand the majority of mainland Tokyo lie in the humid subtropical climate zone(Köppen climate classification Cfa), with hot humid summers and generally mildwinters with cool spells. The region, like much of Japan, experiences aone-month seasonal lag, with the warmest month being August, which averages27.5 °C (81.5 °F), and the coolest month being January, averaging 6.0 °C (42.8°F). Annual rainfall averages nearly 1,530 millimetres (60.2 in), with a wettersummer and a drier winter. Snowfall is sporadic, but does occur almostannually. Tokyo also often sees typhoons each year, though few are strong. Thelast one to hit was Fitow in 2007.
Tokyo, as the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, is Japan’s largest domestic andinternational hub for rail, ground, and air transportation. Publictransportation within Tokyo is dominated by an extensive network of clean andefficient trains and subways run by a variety of operators, with buses,monorails and trams playing a secondary feeder role.
Within Ōta, one of the 23 special wards, Haneda Airport offers domestic andinternational flights. Outside Tokyo, Narita International Airport, in ChibaPrefecture, is the major gateway for international travelers to Japan andJapan’s flag carrier Japan Airlines, All Nippon Airways, Delta Air Lines, andUnited Airlines all have a hub at this airport.
Various islands governed by Tokyo have their own airports. Hachijōjima(Hachijojima Airport), Miyakejima (Miyakejima Airport), and Izu Ōshima (OshimaAirport) have services to Tokyo International and other airports.