Cairo – Egypt, Africa
Cairo ( literally “TheVanquisher” or “The Conqueror”), is the capital of Egypt and the largestcity in the Muslim World, the Arab worldand Africa andthe 16th largest metropolitan areain the world. Nicknamed “The City of a Thousand Minarets”for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region’spolitical and cultural life. Cairo was founded by the Fatimid dynastyin the 10th century AD.; but the land composing the present-day city was thesite of national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo.Cairo is also associated with AncientEgypt due to its proximity to the ancient cities of Memphis,Giza and Fustat which arenearby to the Great Sphinx and the pyramidsof Giza.
Egyptians today often refer to Cairoas Maṣr (Arabic:مصر), the Arabicpronunciation of the name for Egyptitself, emphasizing the city’s continued role in Egyptian influence. Cairo has the oldest and largest film and music industriesin the Arab World, as well as the world’s second-oldest institution of higherlearning, al-Azhar University. Many international media,businesses, and organizations have regional headquarters in the city, and the Arab Leaguehas had its headquarters in Cairofor most of its existence.
With a population of 6.76 millionspread over 453 squarekilometers (175 sq mi), Cairo is byfar the largest city in Egypt.With an additional ten million inhabitants just outside the city, Cairo resides at the centre of the largest metropolitanarea in Africa and the eleventh-largest urban area in theworld. Cairo,like many other mega-cities, suffers from high levels of pollution andtraffic, but its metro – currently the only one on the African continent– also ranks among the fifteen busiest in the world, with over 700 millionpassenger rides annually. The economy of Cairowas ranked first in the Middle East, and 43rd globally by ForeignPolicy’s 2010 Global Cities Index.
Cairois located in northern Egypt, known as Lower Egypt,165 kilometres (100 mi) south of the MediterraneanSea and 120 kilometres (75 mi) west of the Gulf ofSuez and Suez Canal.The cityis along the Nile River,immediately south of the point where the river leaves its desert-bound valleyand branches into the low-lying Nile Deltaregion. Although the Cairo metropolis extends away from the Nile in alldirections, the city of Cairo resides only on the east bank of the river andtwo islands within it on a total area of 453 square kilometres(175 sq mi).
ransportationin Cairo comprises an extensive road network, rail system,subwaysystem, and maritime services. Road transport is facilitated by personalvehicles, taxi cabs, privately owned public buses, and Cairomicrobuses. Cairo, specifically Ramses Square, is the centre of almost theentire Egyptian transportation network.